Climate Change and Human Security in a Regulatory Multilevel and Multidisciplinary Dimension: The Case of the Arctic Environmental Ocean
Climate change determines the retreat of ice. This has created a huge access to petroleum, attracting strong interest by some states, especially energy hungry-countries and increasing competition between states, resulting in tension and threats, even military ones. Climate change has, therefore, to be perceived as a threat to international peace and security. However, recognition of the nexus between climate change, human security and conflicts in the prism of international law and politics is weak, leading to a difficulty institutions have for regulating and governing this nexus. Climate change can thus be considered as threat multiplier, something that can exacerbate existing tensions, and the resolution of this threat will be the most difficult task to achieve where adaptation takes place in fragile and vulnerable areas, such as the Arctic, an area which is highly exposed to environmental risks and uncertainty. The region is populated by one of the most vulnerable groups, the indigenous people, such as the Inuit of the Arctic with low adaptive capacity compared to the pace of change. In the Arctic Environmental Ocean governance, access to natural resources, the potential of navigability, extension of maritime borders, and the desire of some states to extend their jurisdiction, all depict a situation of criss-crossing potential conflicts that could escalate and should, therefore, be perceived as “tinderboxes”. This article relatedly explores the existing legal framework in the case of the Arctic environmental ocean to provide effective and legitimate governance for a peaceful and “stable space” to prevent threats from both Arctic and non-Arctic states. It will be shown that Arctic Environmental Ocean activities need multi-level governance (global, regional, national and local) and that Arctic environmental security challenges cannot be addressed without a broader holistic vision.
The article treats the United Nations regulatory level and how it could support many issues which have an impact on Arctic Environmental Ocean governance, and the Law on the Sea. Methodologically, the way to increase effectiveness to maintain and stabilize the Arctic environmental ocean governance entails that “stability” is achieved by integrating elements of climatology, international law, political science and agent based modelling to act in a preventative way to protect the Arctic environmental ocean and its societies and formulate effective policies. The conclusion led on how the current Arctic environmental ocean framework could be changed in order to increase effectiveness by incorporating risk analysis into a universal equation based model to redesign a new regulatory package at United Nations level and recommend changes at institutional level.
Sino-Nordic Relations: Opportunities and the Way Ahead
This report provides a study the relationships between the People’s Republic of China and the “Nordic” countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. It will pay particular attention to the possibilities for joint Nordic regional cooperation to serve as basis for such relation. ISDP has assessed challenges and shortcomings to these relationships, and proposes a series of opportunities as to how China and the Nordic countries can expand upon beneficial mutual engagements whilst mitigating risks to core ideals and interests.
本《报告》研究了中华人民共和国与北 欧国家(即丹麦、芬兰、冰岛、挪威、瑞典五国)之间的关系，并特别关注了 北欧以联合的地区合作为基础与中国开展合作的可能性。瑞典安全和 发展政策研究所评估了上述关系的弱点 及所面临的挑战，并为中国与北欧国家 如何在双边互惠交往中实现关系拓展， 并降低危及核心理念及利益的风险指明 了一系列机遇。
The role of science diplomacy: a historical development and international legal framework of arctic research stations under conditions of climate change, post-cold war geopolitics and globalization/power transition
The Arctic is undergoing transformation, where three important drivers are climate change, post-Cold War geopolitics and globalization/power transition from the rise of China. This transformation defines the nexus between science […]
Illusion’s End: Erdoğan and Turkey’s Coming Economic Chill
The rapid depreciation in the value of the Turkish Lira since the beginning of 2018 is the product not only of the collapse of any remaining vestiges of investor confidence […]
A Balancing Act: the 16+1 Cooperation Framework
Since 2012, the 16+1 Cooperation Framework (hereby 16+1) has been the focal point of relations between China and Central Eastern Europe (CEE). However, this initiative is marked by various asymmetries […]
Iran’s Azerbaijan Question in Evolution: Identity, Society, and Regional Security
Executive Summary Iranian Azerbaijanis have historically been considered the country’s most loyal ethno-linguistic minority. Predominantly Shiite, with religion being the most important source of collective identity, Turkophone Azerbaijanis had until […]