Climate Change, Environmental Threats and Cybersecurity in the European High North
This paper – “Climate Change, Environmental Threats and Cybersecurity in the European High North”, appears as a chapter in a wider study entitled “Enablement Besides Constraints: Human Security and a Cyber Multi-Disciplinary Framework in the European High North”, published by Juridica Lapponica 47, Arctic Centre, Lapland – Rovaniemi 2019
This chapter establishes the interconnection between existing environmental global governance systems and cyberspace/cybersecurity as well as the first ever parallel between the environmental (liability) regime and the nascent cybersecurity regime. Understanding the interconnections between these and the role of law, policies and practices in the European High North (EHN) is critical to understanding the variables affecting both climate change and cyberspace. Although climate change and cyberspace are different phenomena, the risks associated with both of them are anthropogenic and can affect the same critical equities, including key sectors such as water, food and energy infrastructures. The aim of this study is to better grasp the development of cyberspace and its revolutionary impact on human behaviour and human security. This chapter examines and addresses four core ideas: (1) the linkage between climate change, environmental threats and cybersecurity in the EHN; (2) how the interconnectedness of environmental threats and cybersecurity can be identified, managed and regulated, including aspects of governance for cybersecurity and cyber resilience in the EHN; (3) how cyberthreats and their related risk assessments can be incorporated into regulatory frameworks in order to create proactive rather than reactive law by
exploring which is the best regulatory framework (or possible combination) applicable among different areas of law; and (4) the current cyberthreats, for example, in the energy industry and specifically to critical infrastructures (CIs) of the energy system, which will advise on the need to design a future agreement incorporating the notion of human security.
This approach is based on Elinor Ostrom’s (2012) legal framework applied to cyberspace, which can help to conceptualize the connection between cyberspace and environmental regimes. Through this method, institutional analysis design and socio-ecological systems (Ostrom, 2012) complement legal theories based on legal pluralism and polycentrism.
Japan’s Multi-Domain Defense Force: The Space, Cyber, and Electromagnetic Domains
This article sheds light on Japan’s “Multi-Domain Defense Force” formulated in the National Defense Program Guidelines (NDPG) as well as the Medium Term Defense Program (MTDP) (FY2019-FY2023) approved by the […]
The Next Generation Problem: The Ups and Downs of Sweden’s Huawei Ban
Abstract After months of pending legal challenges, Sweden proceeded with the long-delayed 5G-frequency auctions in January this year, finally allowing Swedish telecom providers to continue the 5G-rollout; however, still without […]
China’s Cybersecurity Legislation: A Paper Tiger or an Institutionalized Theft?
China’s digitalization drive has become a key force for the country’s economic growth and transformation, opening new opportunities for Chinese companies internationally. The booming digital economy, which has increased the […]
Climate Change, Environmental Threats and Cyber-Threats to Critical Infrastructures in Multi-Regulatory Sustainable Global Approach with Sweden as an Example
Abstract This article explores and analyzes the nexus between climate change, environmental threats, and cyber-threats in a multi-regulatory contextual sustainable global approach with Sweden as an example. Research and collection […]
Cyber Threats, Harsh Environment and the European High North (EHN) in a Human Security and Multi-Level Regulatory Global Dimension: Which Framework Applicable to Critical Infrastructures under “Exceptionally Critical Infrastructure Conditions” (ECIC)?
Abstract Business opportunities in the European High North (EHN) are accompanied by the danger of cyber-threats, especially to critical infrastructures which in these Arctic regions become “extra critical” because of […]
Taiwan-Marshall Islands Relations: Against the Tide
Introduction The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is among a handful of countries to still recognize the Republic of China (ROC)*, one of four in the South Pacific. Two […]